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Citation Styles

While there are other citation styles, (Turabian, Chicago) at LSC-O our students are required to use MLA in the humanities and APA in the sciences and applied sciences. The following citing guides provide basic rules for various types of materials with examples of items from the library and the Web. The handouts are in PDF format, which requires the free Adobe Reader to open. The bar code on the page has the Web URL encoded.

  • LSC-O's Guide to MLA Citation Style-- MLA style is used in composition and literature, speech, philosophy, history, arts, humanities and music.
  • LSC-O's Guide to APA Citation Style-- APA style is used in the sciences, psychology, social and political science, and applied sciences such as allied health, nursing, business, technology, and education.

Recommended citation style Web sites and tutorials

  • CLIP (Cooperative Library Instruction Project)-- These two guides have samples of in-text citations, works cited pages, and paper formatting.
  • C.W. Post Library at Long Island University-- The various citation parts are illustrated in different colors, which is helpful to many students. Information about creating in-text or parenthetical citations for each style is at the bottom of the page.
  • Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)-- A complete writing guide covering ALL aspects of college level writing. Our two links below go to their APA and MLA formatting and citing guides.